Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Applying value expectancy theory, or the theory of reasoned action or Research Paper

Applying esteem hope hypothesis, or the hypothesis of contemplated activity or arranged conduct, to a potential HIV avoidance program in Tanzania - Research Paper Example Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency (AIDS) together structure a malady that has pulverized many individuals internationally and has seen the profitable individuals tumble to it (Whiteside 2008). Starting at 2007/08, the HIV commonness rate in Tanzania had tumbled to 5.7% with ladies having 6.6% while men had 4.6%. This was a tumble from 7.0% with 7.7% in the 6,000 ladies who were tried and 4.3% in men, 4,900 of whom were tried. This data was gotten to from the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 2009. Because of this mediation, the ladies dressed in Tanzania are foreseen to change in a few different ways. As a matter of first importance, the ladies are relied upon to turn out to be increasingly emphatic in the family units undoubtedly. This interprets ladies having the option to haggle for sex with their accomplices and as a result increment the utilization of condoms. Simultaneously, the high hazard classification is anticipated to be proficient on the advantages of utilizing condoms. They are relied upon to begin taking careful steps, just as, instructing their kindred ladies on the equivalent. The high hazard bunch for this situation for the most part envelops business sex laborers. The benefit of evaluating this conduct goal is to permit the tacticians upgrade inadequate messages and furthermore permit the plan of increasingly successful and forward-thinking form. As Fishbein (2000) has expressed, there is no compelling reason to figure new hypotheses of conduct change. The current ones are viable when applied well. In such manner, as he has expressed, focusing on a particular conduct for change will adequately achieve the required change. In the event that the ladies can be all around educated regarding the dangers that they face through unprotected sex, they would then be able to improve. This figure shows the interrelationship of various factors in the molding of conduct. This model, embraced by Fishbein (2000), demonstrated the way that conduct of ladies utilizing condoms will be

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Osama Bin Ladens threat to the United States

The article is â€Å"The Osama canister Laden I Know: An Oral History of al Qaeda’s Leader† by Peter L. BergenAdvertising We will compose a custom article test on Osama Bin Laden’s danger to the United States explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More This article is one of a kind as it gives a top to bottom picture of Osama’s life and his contribution in military movement. It at that point proceeds onward to show the development of Osama’s scorn towards the U.S. also, thusly the development of dangers towards the Americans. Research question of the article Does the article set up the rise of his danger to the United States and depict its counter measures? Theory of the article H1: The article expects to determine the historical backdrop of Osama Bin Laden H2: The article intends to depict the job in Islamic fronts on his danger of the United StatesAdvertising Looking for article on government? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The articles general substance of the writing audit The writing survey fills its need of expounding the beginning of Osama and the origination of his scorn of the U.S. This help the peruser comprehend the beginning of his dangers to the U.S. The article’s writing survey clarifies that Osama Bin Laden’s mother originated from Syria, and his dad originated from Yemen. Conceived in 1957, Osama Bin Laden was the seventh youngster in a group of fifty kin. Receptacle Laden’s father had a poor foundation and later turned into a ground-breaking specialist who claimed one or the greatest development organizations in the realm. Container Laden’s father was near the regal group of King Saud and later the Faisal ruler. After the post Saud-Faisal struggle, Laden’s father helped King Faisal by paying the common servants’ compensation a half year. The article’s writing survey demonstrated that Osama Bin Laden had gigantic Islamic duty. His father’s strict connection with Hajj pioneers got Islamic researchers and pioneers to their home during Hajj. The pioneers and researchers impacted Osama Bin Laden in strict issues. A portion of the Islamic researchers were pioneers in different Muslim developments around the Middle East. Osama Bin Laden made fantastic contacts with the development chiefs in those social occasions. In his optional school life, he joined the Muslim fraternity the same number of other instructed Muslims at that point. Later in college, he attempted necessary Muslim examinations. The instructors in the article later became famous pioneers in Afghanistan. The audit additionally clarified that Osama Bin Laden initially went to Afghanistan during the principal long stretches of the soviet attack. He had first had involvement in displaced people and met a few chiefs through his hosts. This was an exploratory outing, which kept going a month. Afterward, he made a move trip back to Pakistan in the wake of campaigning pioneers to help the Mujahedeen. He collected a conquerable measure of cash for the Jihad. In this outing, he went with Pakistanis and Afghanis who worked in the Bin Laden. This pattern of gathering cash and voyaging went on until 1982. In 1982, he went to Afghanistan stacked with a lot of hardware for development to help the mujahedeen. Osama Bin loaded went through as long as eight months in a year in Afghanistan. This was enormous devotion from an individual from an alternate nation and an open to lifestyle.Advertising We will compose a custom article test on Osama Bin Laden’s danger to the United States explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The writing audit followed the start of Osama’s military inclusion as beginning in 1984, when he built up a guesthouse called Baitulansar in Peshawar to be the main Arab mujahedeen station in Afghanistan. In 1988, Osama manufactured upward of six camps in Afg hanistan. He had his own front and ran his own under his own order. He selected senior Arab ex-military as his warriors and Syrian and Egyptian men with fantastic military experience. He went through eight months or increasingly a year in Afghanistan. The article’s writing guaranteed that in 1988, Osama started archiving his guest development from the guesthouse to the camps creating a complex known as Al-Qaeda, which implies â€Å"The Base.† Al-Qaeda became open information. After the Afghan war, the al Qaeda contenders joined other worldwide clashes. This made al Qaeda a worldwide substance and profited development of different ages of al Qaeda. Substance of the writing audit The writing survey of the article depicted the nearness of American power in the Saudi Arabia during the Gulf war moved al Qaeda center to fighting the attack. The al Qaeda secured Saudi Arabia, as it was home of Islam’s most holy sanctums. They started extraordinary fear based oppressor acts against rulers in Saudi Arabia. A definitive objective of these activities expected to compellingly drive out the ace American authority in Saudi Arabia and supplant it with the Islamic system. The demonstrations of dread constrained the Saudi Arabia administration to expel Bin Laden and later renounce his citizenship. As indicated by the writing survey of the article, in 1991, Osama Bin Laden migrated to Sudan, which turned into his base for very nearly six years. Right now, Al Qaeda made numerous associations with fear based oppressor associations helped by their Sudanese has and territory of Iran. Al Qaeda sorted out dread assaults completed by sister associations. In spite of the fact that people guarantee that Osama Bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda outfit were answerable for the attacks’ on the world exchange community 1993, there is little proof. He assaulted American compassionate guards going to Somalia in Yemen and Aden. He likewise helped the Somali volunteer armies fend off United States powers in 1994. In 1995, he executed a genuine fear monger assault against American military in Riyadh, and the next year in Khobar. Following U.S. pressure, the Sudanese government asked Bin Laden to migrate which he did. He moved to Afghanistan and got to know administering Taliban. The writing survey of the article further shows that in Afghanistan, Osama’s hostile to US talk heightened higher than ever. In 1996, he lauded the assaults in Riyadh on U.S. fighters. Around the same time, he gave Al Qaeda’s first jihad, statement of war, to America.Advertising Searching for article on government? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More In 1998, a few Muslim pioneers got the power together with Bin Laden to frame an alliance against Jews and crusaders. This element gave a Jihad against the U.S. The worldwide Islamic front picked Osama Bin Laden to turn into their pioneer. The front distributed its objectives and philosophies in a British based Arabic paper. It expressed its fundamental objective as a call to all Muslims to kill any Americans or their partners any place they might be (Bergen, 2006). The writing survey closes by demonstrating the pinnacle of Osama assaults. The Al-Qaeda assaults against the United States heightened in August 1998. This is the point at which they assaulted two United States international safe havens in the capitals’ of Kenya and Tanzania slaughtering 12 Americans and 200 local people. The U.S. fought back by assaulting focuses in Afghanistan and Sudan. The Al Qaeda assaults proceeded and in October 2000, they bombarded an American rocket destroyer called the U.S.S. Cole at Aden in Yemen. The most pulverizing Al Qaeda assaults happened on September 11, 2001. Central matters of the article The primary concerns of the article are recognizing the dangers presented by Osama Bin Laden on the United States. The need is the danger presented by Osama Bin Laden with his al Qaeda outfit. The Al Qaeda keeps on proceeding onward after Osama’s demise. This article endeavors to comprehend the importance and greatness of the danger ready. The article likewise looks at factors that upgrade and support the danger. The techniques utilized in gathering and investigating Data The creator clarifies the strategies for gathering information top to bottom. The creation of the article required a detailed proof base. The material obtained from various sources. It guaranteed legitimate and right supporting data to the examination did. The assortment of data interlinks for proficiency. Both quantitative and subjective research strategies aid the age of data. Subjective strategi es: These incorporate writing surveys of reports with data that influences assortment subjective edges. Quantitative strategies: These incorporates work area arranging of vital reports and information obtained for an assortment of perspectives dissected. These strategies limit superfluous material to be utilized on the creation of the primary concerns in the article. It draws out an extensive and top to bottom intrigue to the archive. The table beneath features the primary concerns for every goal. The procedure requires cautious thought of information accessible. No Objective 1 Carry out a complete and basic investigation of the current status of the danger of ready to the United States by Al Qaeda system and Osama Bin Laden. 2 Develop key ends on issues influencing the danger of ready to the United States by Al Qaeda system and Osama Bin Laden. These techniques could help me reproduce the investigation of the creation of the article. I trust I could effectively repeat the examinati on on the off chance that I follow the strategies to the later. Discoveries The discoveries support the author’s theory. The discoveries show that the danger presented by Osama Bin Laden on the United States started from the prior long periods of the Gulf war. The American control of Saudi Arabia drove Osama to engender loathe against Americans. This drove him to get banished and keeping in mind that, on oust, he started his plots and assaults against Americans. He revitalized Muslims to assault Americans in his job as a pioneer of a universal Muslim front. He declared various jihads against the American country and their

Sunday, August 9, 2020

What Is Sociocultural Theory

What Is Sociocultural Theory Theories Developmental Psychology Print Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on July 01, 2019 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW Updated on November 26, 2019 More in Theories Developmental Psychology Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology Sociocultural theory is an emerging theory in psychology that looks at the important contributions that society makes to individual development. This theory stresses the interaction between developing people and the culture in which they live. Sociocultural theory also suggests that human learning is largely a social process. Illustration by Brianna Gilmartin, Verywell An Introduction to Sociocultural Theory Sociocultural theory grew from the work of seminal psychologist Lev Vygotsky, who believed that parents, caregivers, peers, and the culture at large were responsible for developing higher-order functions. According to Vygotsky, learning has its basis in interacting with other people. Once this has occurred, the information is then integrated on the individual level: Vygotsky was a contemporary of other great thinkers such as Freud, Skinner, and Piaget, but his early death at age 37 and the suppression of his work in Stalinist Russia left him in relative obscurity until fairly recently. As his work became more widely published, his ideas have grown increasingly influential in areas including child development, cognitive psychology, and education. Sociocultural theory focuses not only how adults and peers influence individual learning, but also on how cultural beliefs and attitudes impact how instruction and learning take place. According to Vygotsky, children are born with basic biological constraints on their minds. Each culture, however, provides what he referred to as tools of intellectual adaptation. These tools allow children to use their basic mental abilities in a way that is adaptive to the culture in which they live. For example, while one culture might emphasize memory strategies such as note-taking, other cultures might utilize tools like reminders or rote memorization. Piaget vs. Vygotsky: Key Differences So how does Vygotskys sociocultural theory differ from Piagets theory of cognitive development? First, Vygotsky placed a greater emphasis on how social factors influence development. While Piagets theory stressed how a childs interactions and explorations influenced development, Vygotsky stressed the essential role that social interactions play in cognitive development.??? Another important difference between the two theories was that while Piagets theory suggests that development is largely universal, Vygotsky suggested that cognitive development can differ between different cultures. The course of development in Western culture, for example, might be different than it is in Eastern culture. Piagets Four Stages of Cognitive Development The Zone of Proximal Development An important concept in sociocultural theory is known as the zone of proximal development.??? According to Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development is the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem-solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers. Essentially, it includes all of the knowledge and skills that a person cannot yet understand or perform on their own yet  but is capable of learning with guidance. As children are allowed to stretch their skills and knowledge, often by observing someone who is slightly more advanced than they are, they are able to progressively extend this zone of proximal development. Exploring the Zone of Proximal Development Observations About Social Learning Theory In his text,  Social and Personality Development, author David R. Shaffer explains that while Piaget believed that cognitive development was fairly universal, Vygotsky believed that each culture presents unique differences. Because cultures can vary so dramatically, Vygotskys sociocultural theory suggests that both the course and content of intellectual development are not as universal as Piaget believed. Practical Applications for Vygotskys Sociocultural Theory Sociocultural theory has gained popularity in recent years, particularly in educational settings. Some examples of how this theory can be put into practice in the real world: In the Classroom Understanding the levels of the zone of proximal development can be helpful for teachers.??? In classroom settings, teachers may first assess students to determine their current skill level. Once this has been ascertained, educators can then offer instruction that stretches the limits of each childs capabilities. At first, the student may need assistance from an adult or more knowledgeable peer, but eventually, their zone of proximal development will expand.   Teachers can plan their instruction and lessons. For example, the teacher might organize the class into groups where less skilled children are paired with students who have a higher skill level.  Hints, prompts, and direct instruction can be used to help kids improve their ability levels.Educators might also utilize the concept of scaffolding, where the teacher provides prompts to move the child progressively forward toward a goal. Socializing and Play Vygotskys theory also stressed the importance of play in learning.??? Teachers and parents can utilize this knowledge by providing children plenty of opportunities for play experiences. Vygotsky believed that through playing and imagining, children were able to further stretch their conceptual abilities and knowledge of the world.   Types of play that can further learn include imaginary play, role-playing, games, and reenactments of real events. Such activities help foster the growth of abstract thought.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Symbolism and Irony Used in Edgar Allan Poes The Cask of...

Edgar Allan Poe uses symbolism and irony in unison throughout â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† to demonstrate Montresor’s villainous intentions. As the narrator, Montresor explains that although a friend named Fortunato has insulted him and deserves to be avenged. However, he has hidden his goal from Fortunato, giving no â€Å"cause to doubt [his] good will.† Montresor, aware of Fortunato’s influence, knows he must â€Å"not only punish, but punish with impunity.† Instead, he lures Fortunato to his grave with the promise of fine wine. The victim’s name, Fortunato, meaning â€Å"fortunate,† is ironic as he proves to be an unsuspecting and quite unfortunate character. Fortunato’s apparel, a motley outfit and bells on his head, ironically portrays the fool Montresor ultimately makes of him in his wicked plan. Upon meeting at the carnival, symbolic of a joyous and lively event, Montresor finds himself gleaming with delight at Fortunato’s intoxication, saying â€Å"my dear Fortunato, you are luckily met.† To this Fortunato assumed friendship and acceptance. Rather, Montresor is merely excited only because he can now accomplish his murderous revenge on his unsuspecting victim. Additionally, the word â€Å"lucky† refers to the meaning of Fortunato’s name, but also ironically to the man’s eventual horrific fate. When the two pushed further into the vaults, Fortunato had reoccurring cough attacks, one of which Montresor warns â€Å"go back; your health is precious. You are respected, admired, beloved; you areShow MoreRelatedThe Theme of Revenge in â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† Essay1629 Words   |  7 PagesEdgar Allan Poe’s â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† is a frightening and entertaining short story about the severe consequences that result from persistent mockery and an unforgiving heart. Poe’s excellent use of Gothicism within the story sets the perfect tone for a dark and sinister plot of murder to unfold. â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† simply overflows with various themes and other literary elements that result from Poe’s Gothic style of writing. Of these various themes, one that tends to dominant the storyRead MoreThe Cask of Amontillado by Edgar Allan Poe836 Words   |  3 Pages Symbolism is the use of objects to represent ideas or quali ties in the story. In the story many things are used as symbols such as the actual cask of amontillado, the trowel, the jester costume and the setting in which there is two in the story. Another literary technique used significantly in the story is irony. Irony is the expression of ones meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite. In the short story â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado,† Montresor a very troubled manRead MoreThe Casket Of Amontillado . Edgar Allan Poe’S â€Å"The Cask1680 Words   |  7 PagesThe Casket of Amontillado Edgar Allan Poe’s â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† is a short story illustrating how pride leads to the downfall of two men. At the story’s heart is the tale of Montresor, the protagonist, getting revenge on a former friend, Fortunato. Poe’s characterization of Montresor shows a sinister, proud man, obsessed not only with his revenge but also not getting punished himself. â€Å"It must be a perfect revenge, one in which Fortunato will know fully what is happening to him and in whichRead MoreHow The Cask of Amontillado Uses Symbolism and Irony1291 Words   |  6 Pages Often, writers use symbolism to describe an object with more clarity to the reader. It provides additional layers of meaning to a text. Symbolism is not only important in literature but is also important in everyday life. For instance, symbolism is found in colors, objects, and on flowers. For example a rose can represent love and romance. Symbolism is used in literature, movies, and even on street signs. Such as the colors in the street light: red means stop, yellow means slow down, and the greenRead MoreRole of Realism in Edagar Allan Poe ´s The Tell Tale Heart and The Cask of Amortillado1014 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† written by Edgar Allan Poe are dark short stories relevant to murder, revenge, and mystery. Poe writes both stories in a Gothic style in order to deal with ideas of realism. One may ask were the murders and punishments justifiable in either short story? One may also ask did Poe accurately depict realism in each story? Realism, defined as a technique in literature that accurately represents everyday life, is questioned in Poe’s works: â€Å"The Tell Tale Heart† and â€Å"The Cask ofRead MoreExamples of Irony and Symbolism in The Cask of Amontillado1334 Words   |  6 PagesWriters often use symbolism in the story to give a more vivid description rather than just saying, pictures are a perfect example. S ymbolism is the art of using any object, place, name or anything that represents something rather than its original meaning. A good example can be a roller coaster because it indicates that there will be ups in downs in life. Another example is the color Red this color can symbolize blood, passion or danger. Irony is another technique used in the story to give it a betterRead MoreGothic Literature : The Dark Side Of Romanticism1518 Words   |  7 PagesGothic literature is the dark side of Romanticism. The theme of Gothic stories is either mysterious, horror, or even death. Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Allan Poe are authors that demonstrate Gothic literature. Some of their work include, â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† written by Edgar Allan Poe and â€Å"The Birthmark† by Nathaniel Hawthorne. The Cask of Amontillado tells how the narrator Montresor seeks revenge on his acquaintance, Fortunato. Montresor to desperate measures and did not catch. However, in â€Å"TheRead MoreSymbolism and Irony in Cask of Amontillado866 Words   |  3 Pages In â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado†, the author, Edgar Allen Poe, uses symbolism and irony to connect to the readers. Symbolism is an object or word that has two meanings. Poe uses this device when he writes, â€Å"Fortunado is dressed as a fool†(20). It is symbolic representation of what Fortunado is. Irony is a twist in a situation that creates tension between the two conflicts. Poe uses irony throughout his story as a way of enticing readers. The narrator, Montresor, tells about how he got revenge 50Read MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher Edgar Allan Poe Analysis1184 Words   |  5 PagesEdgar Allan Poe is a well known author and poet whose style is characterized with the usage of a wide range of literary elements that convey a dark mood. Due to Poe’s experiences of poverty and tragedies throughout his life, he became depressed, which affected his writing greatly. Along with his experiences, Poe incorporated many literary elements to enhance the mood of his stories like The Cask of Amontillado and The Fall of The House of Usher. Poe used foreshadowing in both the Fall of the HouseRead MoreThe Masque of the Red Death vs. the Cask of Amontillado1564 Words   |  7 PagesLester Small LITR 220 24 February 2013 The Masque of the Red Death vs. The Cask of Amontillado â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† and â€Å"The Cask of Amontillado† written by Edgar Allan Poe are somewhat different. The major themes of these stories differ significantly, as does the emphasis placed on each character which dealt more to The Cask of Amontillado† than to â€Å"The Masque of the Red Death† Regardless of this, the stories are similar in many ways. For instance, both belong to the literacy of the

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Environment Is A System Of Living Things - 1393 Words

An environment is a system of living things. The Earth is our environment. The capacity of our environment to offer space, to reap nutrition and to fund energy are all limited. Food, water and other basic assets are strained by the escalating requests of our persistently developing population. We rely on these limited resources for our survival, yet we are quickly extending our population as though they were infinite. This reality is at the focal point of our environmental issues. Despite the fact that the number of inhabitants on earth has been escalating in a continuous manner since 1400, the most emotional increment has taken place in more recent decades. Overpopulation is a standout amongst the most concerning troubles in present times. It is an â€Å"undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity of Earth.† (1) There is a natural point of confinement to the population size that can be reasonably maintained by an environ ment. Overpopulation is the undesirable condition where the amount of the existing human population exceeds this natural limit and eventually devours our planet with the request for more nutrition from less land and water supplies. As the total population develops, enhancing expectations for everyday comforts and improving living standards without destroying the Earth is a global challenge. Our world population is growing at about eighty million people a year, which equates to an average of two-hundred andShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Technology On The Environment1368 Words   |  6 Pages In this current scenario, people exist in technology era as well as they are living the development stage in industry, technology and all other aspects. Scientists continually exposed many accurate inventions which are very helpful to people in their day to day life and it makes their life easy and caused a big turn in everyone’s life. The computer and all other recent technological gadgets are best examples of new technologies. Whereas they have their positive influence on people`s life as a wholeRead MoreWhat Are The 3 And Their Meanings?1402 Words   |  6 Pagesmeasurement, matter and energy and systems (ACARA, 2015). Each of these overarching ideas support the developmental concepts in science understanding strand; science inquiry skills and develop students’ appreciation of science (ACARA, 2015). Patterns, order and organisation †¢ Children recognise patterns in the world around them to identify similarity and difference. †¢ Children classify objects and events into groups such as solid, liquid, gas or living/non-living. †¢ This is developed through observationsRead MoreProperties of Life1038 Words   |  5 PagesHow can we tell if an organism is alive or not? Is a virus , prion, virod, or a rock a living organism? What is life? Biologist have studied what makes organism alive for many years and have come to the conclusion the there are nine characteristics of life. Each characteristic has a property which applies to how and organism is alive. Life characteristics are as follows: order, metabolism, motility, responsiveness, reproduction, development, heredity, evolution, and adaptation. All of the characteristicsRead MoreEarth s Democracy By Vandana Shiva1448 Words   |  6 Pagescontrol the government. The earth economy is a living economy. It is based on sustainable, diverse, pluralistic systems that protect nature and people, are chosen by people, for the benefit of the common good. Earth democracy is a living democracy. It promotes the responsible use and conservation of natural resources through communal ownership. The three basic concepts define earth democracy, they are: living economies, living democracies and living cultures. Shiva explains the privatization of theseRead MoreOrganization as Organism1083 Words   |  5 PagesAbstract Organization as a living organism. This metaphor view Organizations from a Biological point of view. Organizations as living systems environment on which they are dependent on each other to satisfy various needs. When studying and comparing organization with living organism it was determined that organizations share the same concept as of a living organism. An organization needs to have the right environment in order to survive, adapt, surpass turbulence and reproduce; the cycle ofRead MoreThe Effects of the Environment on Children Essay812 Words   |  4 PagesEssay 1: Family Systems Over the past hundred years, psychologists have conducted a vast amount of research on children, their development, and the factors that contribute to their healthy and successful development. Much of this research has focused on the childs behavior as an individual, or on the relationship between the parent and the child, and very little on the child as the product and component of a family system. While focusing on the individual child has its benefits, most behaviorsRead MoreThe 8 Characteristics of Living Things Essay616 Words   |  3 PagesCharacteristics of Living Things Overall in science there are 8 characteristics that can be used to determine whether something is living or non-living. Living things are made of cells, have levels of organization, grow amp; develop, maintain homeostasis, process by metabolism, respond to stimuli, reproduce amp; evolve over time. Yes those are the eight characteristics of a living thing. The first characteristic is that all living things are made of one or more cells. For instance living things are allRead MoreMy View Of Prison Is Broken913 Words   |  4 Pagesimmediately family members were apprehended and transitioned in and out of correctional facilities. When I look back on that time, I realize that my family members revolved in and out of my life. These experiences shaped the way that I view the prison system. My relatives would return from their incarceration and they would describe their experiences as hellish and similar to being buried alive. My uncle John was imprisoned for drug possessions and other charges. However, when he was relinquished fromRead MoreCity vs Country1137 Words   |  5 PagesThere are many differences between living in the city or in a country setting, but the country setting has many more advantages over the city. The air and water quality and other environment factors are improved in the country setting. The school system is saf er and less crowded in a rural setting. The roads are not loaded with traffic and taxis. The country is safer than the city and crime rates are lower. In the country, there is an abundance of trees and vegetation. In the country, there are parksRead MoreEssay on Tom Wolfe’s: O Rotten Gotham1156 Words   |  5 Pagesand inhumane. Humans were compared to rats using the overcrowding, the ways of life, and the filth as examples. From the adrenaline rushes and car horns to helicopter noises and constant overcrowding, New York City is a constant stress causing environment. Dr. Hall, another author presented in the article, saw this overcrowding in the city causing a lot of problems. He states that work takes place in massively congested areas such as small cubicles in offices. This, however, is not just a problem

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gender Imbalances In Primary Education Free Essays

string(130) " the primary colleges of instruction exceeded 19 % in 1993, but has ne’er reached that degree later since that twelvemonth\." The subject I have chosen to research is gender instabilities in primary instruction. This consists of the deficiency of male primary school instructors and why primary instruction is predominately female instructors. The ground why I have chosen this subject is because I feel that there is a important difference in gender instructors in instruction chiefly primary instruction. We will write a custom essay sample on Gender Imbalances In Primary Education or any similar topic only for you Order Now I am trusting to detect the chief grounds for this state of affairs in the literature. The subjects that I will be covering will hopefully associate up to the solution to this statement on the chief motivations and principle for gender instabilities. My purposes are to implement the spread I hope to repair and mend in the literature for this undertaking and the following undertaking. I hope to research more theories ( methodological analysiss ) readings and interviews ( methods ) on the subjects I have chosen for the following undertaking. One subject will concentrate on the statistics on the past and current state of affairs of gender instabilities in primary instruction amongst instructors. This will be a justification and an illustration to the readers that a gender instability is present and really exists. A 2nd subject will cover the pupils attitude and behaviour in instruction in a primary and secondary scene and why malenesss plays an of import function in make up one’s minding what calling they hope to prosecute. The 3rd subject will concentrate on the ethnicity in schools and why this is mostly momentous to the gender instability statement. Finally, the Forth and concluding subject will be on the function theoretical accounts both males and females live up to in instruction and why primary schools are feminised. The statement that exists here is that many more misss than male childs will be seeking a topographic point in learning preparation. This is a job for males as already the learning profession is extremely feminised. There are many inquiries attached to this subject and I feel that it is imperative to detect and find the grounds behind this form. The ground why I chose primary instruction instead than secondary or any other educational field is because the gender instability is non as extremely important as the primary sector. I sense that adult females are choosing for traditional and new callings whereas work forces are choosing off from primary school instruction. This is the nucleus ground why I am spliting this reappraisal into subjects as these are used as ushers and stepping rocks to happen this spread in the literature. Statisticss on gender instabilities in primary instruction. The concern of gender instability and distinctively the low proportion of male appliers is an international phenomenon in learning and in peculiar primary school instruction. Despite this being a immense instance in Ireland, it is tolerated in states such as the United States of America, Australia and France. The death of the male primary school instructor is apparent from the publication of the Irish National ( Primary ) Teachers Organisation. The statistics show that from 1970 the per centum of primary school instructors who are male were 32 % . Every ten old ages it is evaluated and it demonstrates a sudden lessening in per centum of male instructors. In the twelvemonth 2000 it dropped to 19 % and this twelvemonth it is an estimated diminution to 14 % . The anticipation from INTO is that there will be a diminution of a minimal 5 % male instructors every ten old ages until 2040 where there will be a mere 1 % of instructors in primary school considered male. This is an interesting t endency as the form is systematically worsening and shows no compunction or betterment to this job harmonizing to this publication. This tendency can merely be understood in the context of wider societal alterations and phenomena, including those impacting the socialization of male childs and the division of caring duties. Although male instructors are in a little minority, they are clearly non a deprived minority. Their over representation in promoted stations, while bit by bit cut downing over recent old ages, together with the much smaller proportion of male instructors on the lower points of the salary graduated table, gives rise to a gender spread in the wage. That creates the inquiry that is this gender instability in primary schools down to salary. Males prosecuting a different calling could be the cause of the low pay income. Salary is doubtless a consideration for all workers in taking a calling. Yet the get downing wage of a primary instructor with an honours grade is ˆ33,901, compared with ˆ27,483 for an applied scientist, ˆ30,124 for a medical houseman and ˆ32,029 for an designer. Most concern alumnuss start on a batch less than this when they leave college. The lone difference is those occupations mentioned would lift in salary with more experience whereas the primary schoo l instructor would offer no greater important rise in the sum of salary. So is this a instance of the deficiency of occupation chance? The figure of instructors in Irish schools has increased by over 4,500 in recent old ages. Job chances range from little one or two instructor schools to big 24 instructor schools, learning in mainstream categories, as resource instructors for kids with particular demands or as place school affair instructors. Ireland ‘s instruction system besides offers a pick of linguistic communication, ethos and location – with 3,200 primary schools. This clearly demonstrates that there is a huge chance for males and females with a figure of different functions that the student/trainer can acquire involved in. The chances are present nevertheless ; the undistinguished wage rise or deficiency of great publicity may change a male pupil ‘s determination in prosecuting this calling. It is interesting to observe that the Numberss for primary school learning from 2003 was justification that a gender instability occurs. The highest proportion of male appliers on the Central Applications Office ( CAO ) was in 2002 with 16.6 % .Males as a per centum of the entire appliers to the primary colleges of instruction exceeded 19 % in 1993, but has ne’er reached that degree later since that twelvemonth. You read "Gender Imbalances In Primary Education" in category "Essay examples" This proves that there a important diminution in male appliers for primary instruction and illustrates this gender instability. Masculinity and effects gender instabilities have on school kids A really of import facet of the gender instability in primary instruction is that of maleness. This is a cognitive theory that must be examined and understood in order to accomplish and detect the spread in the literature. Masculinity is something traditionally to be considered a feature of a male. This could be a quality characterized by physical and behavioural characteristics such as physical strength which is normally known by males. Masculinity is a cultural thought that many work forces support, but do non needfully embody. ( Williams 1995 ) . This cognitive theory would be present for pupils in make up one’s minding their hereafter approximately around the age of 15-18 old ages. Every pupil has their ain purposes. They can include a desire to hold an excess making or a accomplishment for calling intents, addition cognition or better themselves in any field. One of the efficient ways to accomplish them can be separated categories. Some scientists support this theory as misss and male childs vary greatly both physiologically and psychologically whereas other bookmans claim that the advantages of single-sex categories are non so obvious. The chief factor which supports the benefits of single-sex categories is the differences between males and females. The most important among them are physiological. The encephalons of misss and male childs differ in an of import manner. These differences are genetically programmed and are present at birth. Furthermore, misss and male childs have different acquisition manners. The National Association for Single-Sex Public Schools has found that boys prosper a competitory environment whereas girls prefer a collaborative attack to acquisition. Besides research workers mention that single-sex environment has a positive influence on registration in non-traditional capable countries for male and female pupils. For case, misss are more likely to larn higher degree scientific discipline and maths while male childs are more likely to analyze higher degree linguistic communication and humanistic disciplines. As a consequence, separated schools offer alone educational chances for misss and for male childs. This doctrine on the difference between males and females in a physiological sense exists particularly during their secondary instruction. This draws to the argument that is the learning profession suited for males and their features? There are possible grounds why this proves to be the instance. Is it career counsel? There is grounds to demo that calling counsel instructors are more likely to urge instruction as a calling to their top female pupils instead than their top male pupils. Some male childs may besides experience that their equals or parents would non be supportive of them taking a calling as a primary instructor. Another ground that the male childs are non prosecuting this calling is because of the instruction barrier they face. Surely misss are acquiring higher points in the go forthing certification but the figures show that male childs are non using for instruction, so points are non the issue. The honours Irish demand does look to be a barrier as fewer male childs take Irish at honours Leaving Cert degree than misss. Here lies a quandary as there is besides a demand to keep and so better the criterion of Irish in our schools. Lowering the demand for a C3 in higher degree might assist work out one job but compound another. However, the feminisation of instruction is a world-wide tendency so we can barely claim that the honours Irish demand is act uponing the gender balance in states such as America, Australia or France. Gender Imbalances in the primary schoolroom – Ethnographic History As explained earlier that in order to happen the links behind the gender instability, it is imperative to look at its historical context. This following portion will concentrate on the ethnicity of pupils in the schoolroom and why this could be a possible ground for the deficiency of male instructors in primary instruction today. It is good established particularly in assorted schools, male students receive more instructor attending than do females. Harmonizing to Brophy and Good, Boys have more interactions with the instructor than misss. As a consequence of this they by and large appear to be more cardinal, dominant, of import and salient in the instructors ‘ perceptional field. Stanworth ( 1981 ) states that instructors have a general and overall penchant for male students. Why is this state of affairs the instance and does it hold an impact on the calling the pupils they hope to follow? After an analysis on the engagement turns in a schoolroom, the duty for gender instabilities rests mostly on the instructor. By ‘turns ‘ I mean the figure of times a pupil participates in the schoolroom or the pupils ‘ input for the continuance of the schoolroom. The instructor holds an of import duty to give every pupil a just portion of bends and go preferred to gender or biased towards one sex. The instructor may be seen to ensue from him/ her being socially and psychologically predisposed to beg parts to the lessons from the male pupils at the disbursal of affecting the female pupils. Again Stanworth suggests that male childs are more likely than misss to volunteer information to do heavier demands on the instructors ‘ clip. This indicates to me that male pupils are more comprehensive to work with and could take up more of the instructors ‘ valuable clip donated to the female pupils. The damages of instabilities in teacher attending does non needfully follow from the redress of male based attitudes in instructors. This is of class unless they do go sensitive to the interactive methods used by students in procuring attending and colloquial battle. Male pupils put themselves out at that place more than misss and demo more trouble towards the instructor but does non needfully intend that this is a negative attitude towards the instructor. This type of behaviour could find the maleness work forces demonstrate in a schoolroom environment. As discussed before, this type of cognitive theory could find what career work forces hope to take or follow. This is why I feel that male ‘s behaviour in a schoolroom determines what attitude they utilize in their determination doing accomplishments in the hereafter. In this subject, the literature chosen for this subject claim that there is a gender instability in bends at talk and therefore in the distribution of instructor attending. I would hold with this statement as the instructors part is critical in footings of how much attending is gained from the pupils and how much information was gathered and added to the cognition of the pupils. In decision, this survey is a utile part to this field of survey, in peculiar for its attending to forms of differential engagement among male childs and for the fresh thoughts in explicating gender instability that it presents. However, it may hold some defects and these indicate countries where farther contemplation and research is required. I hope to research more in-depth research and thoughts on this subject for undertaking two and this will hopefully assist me associate those spreads in the literature. Role Models in Teaching There are many grounds why there is an highly short per centum of males involved in primary school instruction. A immense duty for a primary school instructor is the fact that there involves a batch of caring for the pupil. The male might experience that in their caput that adult females are more responsible for this function, therefore they would look elsewhere for a occupation in the work force. The major ground given for work forces why they are so rare in the work force is hapless wage. In add-on work forces find it hard to acquire employment because of frights of maltreatment and a widely held perceptual experience that adult females are better at caring for immature kids. These perceptual experiences are besides common in the U.K. Skelton surveyed pupil instructors to determine their perceptual experiences of the different qualities brought by work forces and adult females to primary school instruction. Work force instructors held a position that adult females instructors have better communicating accomplishments and are by and large more lovingness. This is from a stereotyped point of position as there is non much grounds to back up this statement. Women pupils believe that work forces have important functions to play in furthering good attitudes to analyze among male childs and are needed for function theoretical accounts. The statistics show that the Numberss for male instructors in primary schools are worsening and a consequence of this could be the deficiency of proviso of function theoretical accounts for work forces. From the 1970 ‘s the Numberss of male instructors dropped from 32 % to 14 % this twelvemonth. Skelton and Carrington ( 2002 ) conducted a big graduated table survey of male and female pupils ‘ image of primary school instruction as a calling. All of the pupils felt that primary instruction was suited for both instructors and that it was as intellectually demanding as secondary instruction. Seventy two per centum of work forces and 76 % of adult females disagreed with the statement that adult females instructors are more caring than work forces. Carrington ‘s respondents are positively working against the stereotype that primary instruction is a female occupation and that what is required if we are to increase the figure of work forces in the profession is to work against the stereotype. The research suggests that what primary instruction is approximately is non supplying function theoretical accounts but exciting instruction. It is a possibility that the exhilaration of primary instruction will non thrill the males and therefore they would seek to another adventuresome occupation or calling. Now that it is established that there is a important spread in gender when it comes to primary school instruction, a chief concern could be the initial behaviour of males in the schoolroom. A critical point in this statement is the manner in which for boys the behavior protects from neglecting. In rejecting academic work, they are insulated from the consequence of failure or rejection. At the same clip the behaviors are consistent in keeping traditional masculine hegemony. The simple infliction of male function theoretical accounts would non and could non perforate those behaviors since the schooling policy takes no awareness of the significances and maps of those behaviors for their culprits. The nucleus ground why there is a deficiency of proviso of function theoretical accounts for males is due to the historical premises that primary school is frequently feminised. Historically the profession of primary school instruction has been a female dominated one. We can reason that the current policy enterprise concentrating merely on increasing Numberss of male recruits ignores both historical and modern-day world. In the instance of male accomplishment despite the deficiency of male function theoretical accounts in primary instruction, the media have seemed to hold made much of the deficit of male instructors. Is this down to their attitudes in the schoolroom or infact their ain job with the feminization of primary schooling? My rating to this inquiry is that primary schooling is seen as caring instead than academic from a male ‘s point of position and although work forces are encouraged at first to take this function, they are so regarded as suspect by current policy shapers because of the lovingness function. My feelings are that work forces and adult females are every bit capable of fiting in footings of lovingness and duty, nevertheless their maleness and attitudes towards deficiency of function theoretical accounts and instruction at the age of determination devising separates them. This is why I feel that primary instruction is predominated by females. Overall, my decision to this subject is that there is a mostly important difference in gender to primary school instruction and generates an instability that is historical and will go on to make so in the hereafter. Regardless if this is debatable or non the statistics continue to demo that primary school instruction is feminised and predominated by females. There are many households in the state where kids may non hold a strong male presence in their lives. The different positions, scope of involvements and outlooks that male instructors bring to a school can supply existent function theoretical accounts for all kids. Greater Numberss of work forces in learning agencies kids benefit. Teaching is a calling which offers the chance to model and act upon the following coevals and to assist every kid to make their possible. It is a calling which allows for the usage of all accomplishments and endowments – in communicating, leading and direction – in the class of the on the job twenty-four hours. I summarise that the research and thoughts of others have provided me with the model for my ain work in undertaking two. The fact that this reappraisal has been divided into subjects has helped me derive more cognition and better understanding on this subject and hopefully does the same with the reader. This reappraisal is regarded as a cardinal procedure and worthwhile research. I think the subjects that I have displayed throughout the paper on the statistics, male malenesss, ethnicity and the deficiency of proviso of function theoretical accounts for males have showed critical consciousness on this subject. These are what I feel are the most accurate grounds for the ground that primary school instruction is predominated by females. How to cite Gender Imbalances In Primary Education, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Public Relations and Flight for Brand Value- myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about thePublic Relations and Flight for Brand Value. Answer: Introduction Public relation is an expanding branch. It is essential to any business to gain more exposure in the market and gain credibility. Building a certain image, brand value, connections with the right kind of people and reputation in the market takes a considerable amount of time. This is where PR consultancies and companies play an important role. They help brands tie up with influencers and build a likable image in the market. While some small businesses might not be able to afford PR companies to manage their public relations, most large organizations and businesses indulge and invest heavily in outsourcing their public relations. While there are barely any down sides to having a PR company handle an organization's PR, businesses and employees must also realize there is only so much a PR company can do. In the present day, where technology has outgrown itself and every single human being has a smart phone camera, it is essential that one must put great though into their actions and behave responsibly. The case of flight 3411 is one example of a company facing extremely negative publicity due to the horrible actions of its employees. Errors on Part of Public Relations On the evening of 9th April, 2017 at around 5 p.m., passengers of flight 3411 were set to start their journey from O'Hare International Airport to Louisville. Little did they know about an incident that was going to occur shortly before they could even begin to fly. The flight 3411 had been overbooked. Although overbooking of flights happens all the time, what followed next was an experience no person would want to be a part of. As the flight was overbooked, passengers were offered to voluntarily give up their seats for which they would be compensated. The initial compensation that was offered was $400 and an overnight stay in a hotel. 4 passengers needed to travel to the destination the very next day. However, nobody was willing to give up their seats. Upon seeing this response united express decided to increase their compensation from $400 to $800. 3 out of 4 passengers complied and accepted the travel vouchers and the compensation. But there was still one spot left to be swapped. As no passenger in the flight was agreeing to give up their ticket, united Airways told the passengers that they would select a passenger randomly. The passengers were selected based on a combination of criteria spelled out in Uniteds contract of carriage, including frequent-flier status, fare type, check-in time and connecting flight implications, among others, according to United(Bacon, 2017). This however, did not work out very well. The selected passenger was Dr. David Dao. David is a 69 year old doctor who needed to be in his home town, the very next day as he was expecting to see some of his patients. The doctor revolted and told the crew that he would not swap his ticket as he had to be in his home town the very next day. Things heated up after his non compliance as the doctor refused to leave his seat. The officers however, handled the situation in an extremely disrespectful manner. The arguments between the passenger and the security officers soon turned into a scuffle. The fight led the doctor bleeding and unconscious. Security officers literally dragged the unconscious body of Dr. Dao through the aisle all while the passengers were recording videos on their smart phones. Publics increasingly use social media during crises and, consequently, crisis communication professionals need to understand how to strategically optimize these tools(Fisher, 2011). Upon seeing the situation take a violent turn, some of the passengers decided to board down from the flight. The security officers mishandled the situation gravely. This was aggravated by the PR team of United Airlines sending out different statements in the next 2 hours, leaving an even worse impression on the already dissed passengers. There are a number of things one can learn from the above scenario. Crisis management in relation to its effect on corporate reputation is what PR companies are needed for(Antonio, 2014). Learning Outcomes It is the job of a PR team to manage delicate situations smartly. Failure can result in serious harm to stakeholders, losses for an organization, or end its very existence(Coombs, 2007). However, in the above case scenario, things seemed as if they had gotten out of hand. Management of information and effective communication at times of crisis is of great importance(Ashcroft, 1997). Below are discussed a few points that can help in understanding what went wrong and how it could have been handled better. Communication by an organization during an organizational crisis is essential and often neglected(Sturges, 1994). PR experts in their reports have said that such a scenario was completely avoidable with a little bit of better management. This is what we call in crisis management creating your own crisis, said Eric Rose, a crisis management expert(Martin, 2017). Overbooking of flights is not a new phenomenon and happens all the time. There were a total of four passengers that had to travel from Chicago to Louisville urgently. Instead of randomly selecting passengers who had already paid for their tickets as well, the company should have increased their compensations even further from $800. Even after that, if no passenger would have been willing to swap, the company could have let the 4 passengers know about the situation. They would have lost four customers but maintained their global goodwill(CROWLEY, 2017). Within the next 24 hours after the occurrence of this incident, the CEO of United Airlines sent out 2 different statements. He only apologized for the fact that the airlines had to reallocate passengers while keeping mum on a due apology to Dr. Dao. All of this points towards the mismanagement of the situation by the PR team. Public relations experts say the CEO should have quickly offered an unreserved apology after a customer was filmed on Sunday being forcibly removed from his seat and dragged down an overbooked aircraft's aisle(Petroff, 2017). An extreme outrage from passengers and general public could be seen on social media after t after this incident. This led to bad publicity for the united airlines and with many such incidences happening in a short period of time before and after this incident, United Airlines is rapidly gaining bad publicity. What one can learn from this is that it is essential for PR teams to assess the complete situation before sending out statements as k nee jerk reactions. One must always be prepared for such situations. In addition, one must also know how to handle such situations tactfully. Soon after the incident occurred, the United Airlines reportedly supported the mishandling and misdeeds of their staff and tried to put the entire blame on Dr. David Dao. Such behavior is not only unacceptable but also affects the credibility of a company. While managing PR, it is essential to stick to facts and not try to put blame on the other party as in the case of flight 3411. After the passengers in the flight shared their recorded videos on social media platforms, the public soon got to know everything about the incident. By this time, it was too late for the airlines to take back their statements. This resulted in extreme negative publicity of the company worldwide. In addition to the above incident, there were many other instances reported by people where United Airlines was on the bearing end of allegations such as not allowing two girls who were wearing leggings to board the plane and another passenger who was bitten by a scorpion. In a world filled with a smart phone is e very corner, it is extremely difficult to hide ones wrong doings, or carelessness for long. The more a person is educated in public relations, the more she or he may value social media as a strategic communication tool(Wakefield, 2016). This results in effective realization of how social media can spread both negative and positive publicity like wildfire. Handling public relations is a tough job. One needs to be aware of the sentiments of the other party as well as the public in general. The statement issued by the CEO expressed no remorse for Dr. David Dao. The companys response including the chief executive saying the airline had to re-accommodate passengers hasnt gone down well(Smith, 2017). This hurt the sentiments of not just the doctor but a lot of other people as well. First, the United Airlines overbooked a flight and upon refusal from passengers, the crew and security officers misbehaved with a passenger. This not only shows how inefficient the airlines is in handling their day to day bookings, but also how horribly they treat passengers if they refuse to give up their seats. It is essential that companies understand and teach their employees to respect one and all and to handle complex situations smartly. After the airlines had already issued statements supporting the wrong doings of their staff and the general public came to know about what actually happened, the company reached a point from where it could not turn back. Therefore one must understand the implications of their actions. Conclusion Public Relations can sometimes be tricky to handle. However, one must ensure he or she is behaving respectfully and responsibly. The case example discussed above shows how imperative it is to understand the implications of ones actions. One can also comprehend how easy it is to avoid tricky situations that have the potential to turn volatile quickly. Instead of resorting to fore and violence, one must try to handle complicated situations by bringing all parties involved to a common ground. How one handles a companys public relations holds extreme importance. In the above case scenario, united airlines suffered extreme negative publicity due to their horrible treatment of their passengers in addition to their PR team being weak, impulsive and not effective enough. References Antonio, M. (2014). Crisis Management to Avoid Damage for Corporate Reputation: The Case of Retail Chain Crisis in the Baltic Countries. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences , 452-457. Ashcroft, L. (1997). Crisis management ? public relations. Journal of Managerial Psychology , 325-332. Bacon, J. (2017, april 11). United Airlines says controversial flight was not overbooked; CEO apologizes again. Retrieved october 3, 2017, from USA Today: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2017/04/11/united-ceo-employees-followed-procedures-flier-belligerent/100317166/ BANNISTER, K. (2017, april 18). Lessons in Crisis Management From the United Incident. Retrieved october 5, 2017, from brandwatch: https://www.brandwatch.com/blog/lessons-crisis-management-united-incident/ Coombs, T. (2007). Crisis Management and Communications. The SCIENCE Beneath the ART of PUBLIC RELATIONS , 89-103. CROWLEY, P. (2017, april 11). PR 101: United Airlines lessons in how not to manage a crisis. Retrieved october 4, 2017, from the hill: https://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/transportation/328288-what-others-can-learn-from-uniteds-pr-disaster Fisher, B. (2011). Examining the Role of Social Media in Effective Crisis Management. Sage Journals , 74-94. Martin, H. (2017, april 10). United Airlines suffers more bad publicity after a passenger is dragged from an overbooked plane. Retrieved october 3, 2017, from Los Angeles Times: https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-united-airlines-bad-pr-20170410-story.html Petroff, A. (2017, april 11). United Airlines shows how to make a PR crisis a total disaster. Retrieved october 3, 2017, from money.cnn.com: https://money.cnn.com/2017/04/11/news/united-passenger-pr-disaster/index.html Smith, R. (2017, april 11). After United Airlines' response to a passenger being dragged from a flight here are six of the most memorable airline PR blunders. Retrieved october 4, 2017, from City AM Newsletter: https://www.cityam.com/262750/after-united-airlines-response-passenger-being-dragged Sturges, D. L. (1994). Communicating through Crisis. Management Communication Quarterly , 297-316. Wakefield, R. I. (2016). "Social Media and Strategic Communication: A Three-Year Study of Attitudes and Perceptions About Social Media Among College Students. Public Relations Journal , 310-356.